• Genetics
  • Childhood habits such as thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, pacifier use beyond age 3, and prolonged use of a bottle
  • Mouth breathing
  • Extra teeth, lost teeth, impacted teeth, or abnormally shaped teeth
  • Premature loss of baby teeth
  • Misalignment of jaw fractures after a severe injury
  • Hereditary
  • Small or narrow jaws/arch
  • Crossbites
  • Generally lack of space


  • Malocclusion: Malocclusion is the official term for misalignment of your teeth and bite.
  • Retrognathism: A condition characterized by recession of one or both jaws.
  • Prognathism: An overly prominent jaw
  • Protrude: Extend beyond or above a surface/ to stick out
  • Crossbite: A dental condition in which the lower teeth are in front of the upper teeth
  • Donuts: Small elastics used to hold the wire on the brackets, these come in various colors
  • Archwire: Is a wire conforming to the dental arch that can be used with dental braces as a source of force in the positioning of teeth
  • Brackets: Also known as braces are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth.
  • Molar bands: Rings that are fitted around your back teeth (molars) when constructing a set of braces
  • Full Banding: The process of placing bracing braces on your teeth
  • Debanding: The process of removing braces from your teeth
  • Demineralization: Is a chemical process by which minerals (mainly Calcium) are removed from any of the hard tissues: enamel, dentine, and cementum

Class 1

Is the most common malocclusion. The bite is normal, but the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth


Class 2

Retrognathism or overbite, occurs when the upper jaw and teeth severely overlap the lower jaw and teeth


Class 3

Prognathism or underbite occurs when the lower jaw protrudes or juts forward, causing the lower jaw and teeth to overlap the upper jaw and teeth.


69 Bowling Avenue,

Morningside Manor

(Off Wendywood), Sandton

011 656 2766

Fordsburg - Central office

22 Bonanza Street, Selby


011 834 7786 / 1952 / 4700